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Modulation of in vitro antimalarial responses by polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum ABC transporters (pfmdr1 and pfmdr5)

Gendrot, Mathieu, Wague Gueye, Mamadou, Tsombeng Foguim, Francis, Madamet, Marylin, Wade, Khalifa Ababacar, Bou Kounta, Mame, Fall, Mansour, Diawara, Silman, Benoit, Nicolas, Lo, Gora, Bercion, Raymond, Amalvict, Rémy, Mosnier, Joel, Fall, Bécaye, Briolant, Sébastien, Diatta, Bakary, Pradines, Bruno
Acta tropica 2019 v.196 pp. 126-134
ABC transporters, Plasmodium falciparum, alleles, amino acid motifs, chloroquine, drugs, genetic markers, haplotypes, monitoring, multiple drug resistance, mutation, parasites, piperaquine, pyronaridine, quinine, South East Asia
The emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) was described in Southeast Asia. In this context, the identification of molecular markers of ACT resistance partner drugs is urgently needed for monitoring the emergence and spread of resistance. Polymorphisms in transporter genes, especially of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, have been involved in anti-malarial drug resistance. In this study, the association between the mutations in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (pfmdr1, N86Y, Y184 F, S1034C, N1042D and D1246Y) or repetitive amino acid motifs in pfmdr5 and the ex vivo susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs was evaluated. Susceptibility to chloroquine, quinine, monodesethylamodiaquine, lumefantrine, piperaquine, pyronaridine, mefloquine and dihydroartemisinin was assessed in 67 Senegalese isolates. The shorter DNNN motif ranged from to 2 to 11 copy repeats, and the longer DHHNDHNNDNNN motif ranged from 0 to 2 in pfmdr5. The present study showed the association between repetitive amino acid motifs (DNNN-DHHNDDHNNDNNN) in pfmdr5 and in vitro susceptibility to 4-aminoquinoline-based antimalarial drugs. The parasites with 8 and more copy repeats of DNNN in pfmdr5 were significantly more susceptible to piperaquine. There was a significant association between parasites whose DHHNDHNNDNNN motif was absent and replaced by DHHNDNNN, DHHNDHNNDHNNDNNN or DHHNDHNNDHNNDHNNDNNN and increased susceptibility to chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine and pyronaridine. A significant association between both the wild-type allele N86 in pfmdr1 and the N86-184 F haplotype and reduced susceptibility to lumefantrine was confirmed. Further studies with a large number of samples are required to validate the association between these pfmdr5 alleles and the modulation of 4-aminoquinoline-based antimalarial drug susceptibility.