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The potential role of turmeric and black pepper powder diet supplements in reversing cadmium-induced growth retardation, ATP depletion, hepatorenal damage, and testicular toxicity in Clarias gariepinus

El-Houseiny, Walaa, Khalil, Alshimaa A., Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M., Badr, Haitham A.
Aquaculture 2019
Clarias gariepinus, adenosine triphosphate, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, apoptosis, ash content, black pepper, cadmium, caspase-3, catalase, catfish, creatinine, dietary supplements, estradiol, freshwater ecosystems, growth performance, growth retardation, hepatotoxicity, histopathology, immunoglobulin M, immunohistochemistry, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation, lipids, liver, lysozyme, malondialdehyde, muscles, nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress, potassium, renal function, superoxide dismutase, testes, testosterone, tissues, turmeric, urea
Cadmium (Cd) has become a critical problem in freshwater ecosystems because of both increasing levels and high toxicity. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of turmeric powder (TP) alone or in combination with black pepper powder (BPP) on the Cd-induced growth and health disturbances in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). A total of 180 healthy fish were divided into six groups in triplicate. The first, second, and third groups were fed on a non-supplemented basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with TP (0.5%), and a basal diet supplemented with TP (0.5%) + BPP (0.1%), respectively. The fourth group was exposed to Cd (0.8 mg/L water) only. The fifth and sixth groups were exposed to Cd and fed on diets supplemented with TP or TP + BPP. The growth performance indicators, somatic indices, whole chemical composition, and Cd residues were evaluated. The liver and kidney function indicators, reproductive hormones, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content were estimated. A histopathological investigation and immunohistochemical detection of the apoptotic marker, caspase 3 of hepatic, renal, and testicular tissues were performed. The results showed that Cd reduced growth, crude lipid, protein, ash contents, and hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indexes. Moreover, considerably elevated levels of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, urea, creatinine, potassium, and malondialdehyde were recorded. However, a considerable depletion of lysozyme activity, immunoglobulin M, testosterone, estradiol, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in addition to ATP content was evident. The highest amount of Cd was detected in the liver compared with that in the muscles. Moreover, the impairment of hepatic, renal, and testicular tissues architecture with high expression of caspase 3 was prominent. However, the addition of TP and TP + BPP in the diet of Cd-intoxicated fish restored the disturbances in most of the indicators. Notably, the combined TP + BPP supplementation achieved the highest recovery. Overall, TP + BPP mixture can be added in C. gariepinus diet to enhance growth and ameliorate the hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and reprotoxic effects of Cd.