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An insight on the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in Gallus gallus domesticus (Phasianidae)

Emmanuela de Andrade Vieira, Julya, de Oliveira Ferreira, Raíssa, Marcel dos Reis Sampaio, Douglas, Pereira da Costa Araújo, Amanda, Malafaia, Guilherme
Chemosphere 2019 v.231 pp. 10-19
Gallus gallus, bioaccumulation, biomarkers, biomass, brain, chickens, chicks, cytotoxicity, erythrocytes, models, mutagenicity, mutagens, nanoparticles, tissues, zinc, zinc oxide
Although the toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known in several experimental models, little is known about their effects on bird representatives. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the mutagenic and cytotoxic potential of ZnO NPs in chicks belonging to species Gallus gallus domesticus, as well as to analyze the role played by nuclear and erythrocyte morphological changes as biomarkers of the toxicity of these nanopollutants. Two doses of ZnO NPs (0.245 mg k−1 and 245.26 mg kg−1) were herein tested; they were determined based on the predictive environmental concentration of these NPs (760 μg L-1), on the body biomass of the analyzed animals and on the mean daily water intake/bird. Birds were subjected to two intraperitoneal applications (one per day) of solution containing ZnO NPs; they were euthanized 48 h after the first application. The herein collected data have shown that NPs were capable of inducing the formation of different types of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities, such as micronucleus, binucleate erythrocytes, blebbed, reniform and multilobulated nuclei, as well as symmetric and asymmetric constriction. In addition, changes in the size and shape of erythrocytes were observed in birds exposed to ZnO NPs. Zn bioaccumulation analysis conducted in brain tissues confirmed the association between these changes and animal exposure to ZnO NPs. Thus, besides confirming the toxicological potential of ZnO NPs, to the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first report on the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these NPs on bird representatives.