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Structural analysis and biological activity of cell wall polysaccharides extracted from Panax ginseng marc

Li, Jing, Wang, Damao, Xing, Xiaohui, Cheng, Ting-Jen Rachel, Liang, Pi-Hui, Bulone, Vincent, Park, Jeong Hill, Hsieh, Yves S.Y.
International journal of biological macromolecules 2019 v.135 pp. 29-37
Panax ginseng, T-lymphocytes, bioactive properties, byproducts, cell walls, chelating agents, feeds, fertilizers, fractionation, functional foods, health promotion, industry, inflammation, ingredients, leaves, macrophages, mice, polysaccharides, roots, stems
Ginseng marc is a major by-product of the ginseng industry currently used as animal feed or fertilizer. This fibrous, insoluble waste stream is rich in cell wall polysaccharides and therefore a potential source of ingredients for functional food with health-promoting properties. However, the extraction of these polysaccharides has proved problematic and their exact composition remains unknown. Here we have analysed the composition, structure and biological activity of polysaccharides from ginseng root, stem and leaf marc fractionated using a chelator and alkali solutions. The pectic fraction has been extracted from root marc in high abundance and can activate the production of interleukine-1α and the hematopoietic growth factor by RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, which are important immune regulators of T-cells during inflammatory responses and infection processes. Our study reveals the potential to increase the value of ginseng marc by generating carbohydrate-based products with a higher value than animal feed.