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Multicellularity-interweaved bone regeneration of BMP-2-loaded scaffold with orchestrated kinetics of resorption and osteogenesis

Niu, Haoyi, Ma, Yifan, Wu, Guangyu, Duan, Bing, Wang, Ying, Yuan, Yuan, Liu, Changsheng
Biomaterials 2019 v.216 pp. 119216
X-radiation, bone formation, gadolinium, genes, glass, histology, liver, magnetic resonance imaging, mesenchymal stromal cells, micro-computed tomography, microarray technology, models, osteoclasts, resorption, spleen, tissue repair
Synchronization of material resorption and new bone formation is vital to achieve harmonious bone regeneration in the treatment of large bone defects. To exposit the resorption/osteogenesis properties in the guided bone repairing, rhBMP-2-loaded trimodal macro/micro/nano-porous bioactive glass scaffolds (TMS-rhBMP-2) were set as substrate model. We penetratingly investigated the particular function of hierarchical structure and incorporated rhBMP-2 in the resorption/osteogenesis, and dissected the cellular interplay throughout the regenerative procedure. The results suggested that rhBMP-2 significantly facilitated osteoclastogenesis-mediated scaffold degradation and strikingly up-regulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-involved osteogenesis in vitro. Further gene microarray and related proteins expression indicated that in the presence of rhBMP-2, MSCs rather than differentiated MSCs could exert synergistic effects on osteoclastogenesis, osteoclasts maturation and resorptive function; meanwhile, rhBMP-2-induced MSCs osteogenesis was also strengthened by the osteoclasts. In vivo micro-CT, X-ray, kinetic and histological analyses qualitatively and quantitively demonstrated the optimized coupling of bioresorption/osteogenesis and the most rapid regeneration in TMS-rhBMP-2. Consequently, with rhBMP-2 acted as ignitor and MSCs/osteoclasts interaction as booster, a harmonious bone regeneration was obtained. Besides, long-term magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in virtue of Gd3+ suggested that the degradation products mainly distributed in liver and spleen, verifying the accumulation/discharge profiles and safety application of TMS-rhBMP-2 system in vivo. This study will not merely provide guidance for the design of clinical bone repairing materials, but shed substantial light on the multicell-mediated tissue regeneration.