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Analysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS): Review of current approaches and environmental levels
- Mullin, Lauren, Katz, David R., Riddell, Nicole, Plumb, Robert, Burgess, Jennifer A., Yeung, Leo W.Y., Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson
- Trends in analytical chemistry 2019 v.118 pp. 828-839
- environmental monitoring, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, perfluorocarbons
- Emerging per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFAS) compounds are of increasing interest for environmental monitoring, one being hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA), commonly referred to as GenX. The following review describes existing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods used to analyse HFPO-DA, including sample preparation and method sensitivity relative to other PFAS. Analytical challenges are also described, in particular the significant formation of in-source fragmentation, dimer and dimer adducts which detract from [M-H]- signal. Lastly, detected levels of HFPO-DA in environmental and biological samples are compared across the limited number of available field exposure studies, which found several μg/L concentrations in water samples taken near fluorochemical plant discharges.