Main content area

Assessment of the cytotoxic impact of cyanotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine on a fish immune cell line

Sieroslawska, Anna, Rymuszka, Anna
Aquatic toxicology 2019 v.212 pp. 214-221
Cyanobacteria, adenosine triphosphate, amino acids, carp, cell lines, cell membranes, cyanobacterial toxins, cytotoxicity, enzyme activity, interleukin-1beta, lysosomes, mitochondria, monocytes, neurotoxicity, neurotoxins, phagocytosis
Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by several cyanobacteria species. It is considered to be a potent neurotoxin. Although its neurotoxic effects are well studied, other negative effects of BMAA have not yet been completely elucidated. In the present study, we studied the cytotoxic effects of a wide range of concentrations of BMAA (0.25–2.0 mM) on a stable fish immune cell line (CLC) obtained from carp monocytes. The cells exposed to higher concentrations of BMAA exhibited an altered morphology, changed ATP levels, and reduced proliferation. On the basis of toxic effects of BMAA on lysosomes, mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity, and cell membrane integrity, we determined its cytotoxic concentrations. We also investigated effects of the toxin at non-cytotoxic concentrations on the basic functions of CLC cells. BMAA did not affect the production and release of IL-1β or phagocytic activity of the cells. However, higher non-toxic BMAA concentrations altered the levels of extracellular and intracellular total proteins compared to those in control cells.