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Interannual and seasonal variability in carbon dioxide and methane fluxes of a pine peat bog in the Eastern Alps, Austria

Author:
Drollinger, Simon, Maier, Andreas, Glatzel, Stephan
Source:
Agricultural and forest meteorology 2019 v.275 pp. 69-78
ISSN:
0168-1923
Subject:
autumn, bogs, botanical composition, carbon dioxide, carbon sinks, drainage, drought, ecosystem respiration, ecosystems, eddy covariance, greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gases, gross primary productivity, methane, net radiation, peatlands, photoperiod, seasonal variation, soil temperature, soil water, spring, summer, winter, Alps region, Austria, Central European region
Abstract:
Intact peat bogs are carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks and methane (CH4) sources. Facing drought and drainage, they may turn into CO2 sources and decreased CH4 sources. Information on the CO2 and CH4 exchange of alpine peat bogs in Central Europe has been missing so far. Here, we present data from two years of CO2 and CH4 exchange between an alpine low-shrub pine bog in the Eastern Alps and the atmosphere using the eddy covariance method. The annual net CO2 ecosystem exchange of the peatland differs substantially between the two measurement years, with -24 ± 13 g C m−2 yr−1 for the drought affected first year and -84 ± 13 g C m−2 yr−1 for the more humid second year. We found ecosystem respiration (Reco) to depend on variations in soil temperature and soil moisture, and gross primary production (GPP) to be strongly linked to net radiation and daylength. The summer drought in 2015 shifted the peatland from a C sink to a C source, as increases in Reco clearly exceeded enhanced GPP. Annual CH4 emission was 4.40 ± 2.40 g C m−2 yr−1 during the drought-affected year and 5.24 ± 2.57 g C m−2 yr−1 during the wetter year. Summer CH4 fluxes contribute 44% to the annual balance, followed by autumn (27%), spring (20%) and winter season fluxes (9%). CH4 fluxes most strongly depend on soil temperatures, soil moisture effects increase at smaller time-scales. Annual CH4 emissions are low compared to other temperate bogs, which most likely is the result of the ongoing degradation, indicated by a shift in vegetation composition. Net flux of both greenhouse gases was positive in the first year (+75 g CO2-eq m−2) and negative in the second year (−110 g CO2-eq m−2). Our results indicate that drought events and seasonal and interannual variations in temperature and precipitation strongly affect the C cycle of alpine peat bogs.
Agid:
6449255