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Evolution of serotypes in bacteremic pneumococcal adult pneumonia in the period 2001–2014, after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in bizkaia (spain)

España, Pedro P., Uranga, Ane, Ruiz, Luis Alberto, Quintana, Jose María, Bilbao, Amaia, Aramburu, Amaia, Serrano, Leyre, Ayarza, Rafael, Martinez, Ana Patricia, Zalacain, Rafael
Vaccine 2019 v.37 no.29 pp. 3840-3848
adults, childhood, children, comorbidity, hospitals, observational studies, patients, pneumonia, serotypes, vaccination, vaccines, Spain
The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13) in children has led to a change in the pattern of pneumococcal serotypes causing pneumococcal disease in adults. The aim of this study is to analyze the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes in adults with bacteremic pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (BPP) after the introduction of PCVs in childhood, and the impact of age and comorbidity on this distribution. We conducted an observational study of all adults hospitalized with BPP between 2001 and 2014, in two tertiary hospitals. Overall, we identified 451 cases of BPP (2001–2005: 194, 2006–2010: 134, 2011–2014: 123). The rate of appearance of new cases decreased over the study period. In 70% of the cases, the serotypes found were among those included in PCV13. The most prevalent serotypes were 3 (23.1%), 7F (14.6%), 19A (8.4%) and 1 (7.5%). There was a significant trend to decrease in the percentage of BPP cases due to PCV7 from period 2001–2005 to 2011–2014 (p = 0.0166) and a significant trend to increase in the six serotypes added to form PCV 13 (p = 0.0003). Serotype 3 was the most frequent in patients who developed complications during hospitalization. We did not detect a significant increase in cases caused by non-PCV13 serotypes. The most frequent non-PCV13 serotype was 22F. In conclusion, a significant proportion of adults continue to develop BPP with vaccine serotypes despite infant pneumococcal vaccination. There is a need for further strategies to reduce the current burden of this disease on adults.