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24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

Verma, Anjali, Cohen, D. Joshua, Schwartz, Nofrat, Muktipaty, Chandana, Koblinski, Jennifer E., Boyan, Barbara D., Schwartz, Zvi
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2019 v.1863 no.10 pp. 1498-1512
DNA replication, apoptosis, blood serum, breast neoplasms, cell viability, cholecalciferol, chondrocytes, dose response, epidemiological studies, estrogen receptors, females, metabolites, metastasis, mice, neoplasm cells, palmitoylation, patients, phospholipase D, phospholipases, therapeutics
Epidemiological studies indicate high serum 25(OH)D3 is associated with increased survival in breast cancer patients. Pre-clinical studies attributed this to anti-tumorigenic properties of its metabolite 1α,25(OH)2D3. However, 1α,25(OH)2D3 is highly calcemic and thus has a narrow therapeutic window. Here we propose another metabolite, 24R,25(OH)2D3, as an alternative non-calcemic vitamin D3 supplement.NOD-SCID-IL2γR null female mice with MCF7 breast cancer xenografts in the mammary fat pad were treated with 24R,25(OH)2D3 and changes in tumor burden and metastases were assessed. ERα66+ MCF7 and T47D cells, and ERα66- HCC38 cells were treated with 24R,25(OH)2D3in vitro to assess effects on proliferation and apoptosis. Effects on migration and metastatic markers were assessed in MCF7.24R,25(OH)2D3 reduced MCF7 tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In vitro results indicate that this was not due to an anti-proliferative effect; 24R,25(OH)2D3 stimulated DNA synthesis in MCF7 and T47D. In contrast, markers of invasion and metastasis were decreased. 24R,25(OH)2D3 caused dose-dependent increases in apoptosis in MCF7 and T47D, but not HCC38 cells. Inhibitors to palmitoylation, caveolae integrity, phospholipase-D, and estrogen receptors (ER) demonstrate that 24R,25(OH)2D3 acts on MCF7 cells through caveolae-associated, phospholipase D-dependent mechanisms via cross-talk with ERs.These results indicate that 24R,25(OH)2D3 shows promise in treatment of breast cancer by stimulating tumor apoptosis and reducing metastasis.24R,25(OH)2D3 regulates breast cancer cell survival through ER-associated mechanisms similar to 24R,25(OH)2D3 effects on chondrocytes. Thus, 24R,25(OH)2D3 may modulate cell survival in other estrogen-responsive cell types, and its therapeutic potential should be investigated in ER-associated pathologies.