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Brassica-enriched wheat bread: Unraveling the impact of ontogeny and breadmaking on bioactive secondary plant metabolites of pak choi and kale

Klopsch, Rebecca, Baldermann, Susanne, Hanschen, Franziska S., Voss, Alexander, Rohn, Sascha, Schreiner, Monika, Neugart, Susanne
Food chemistry 2019 v.295 pp. 412-422
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis, breadmaking, breads, carotenoids, chlorophyll, cotyledons, coumaric acids, glucosinolates, ingredients, kale, leaves, metabolites, microgreens, ontogeny, wheat
Consumption of Brassica vegetables is linked to health benefits, as they contain high concentrations of the following secondary plant metabolites (SPMs): glucosinolate breakdown products, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds. Especially Brassica vegetables are consumed as microgreens (developed cotyledons). It was investigated how different ontogenetic stages (microgreens or leaves) of pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) differ in their SPM concentration. The impact of breadmaking on SPMs in microgreens (7 days) and leaves (14 days) in pak choi and kale as a supplement in mixed wheat bread was assessed. In leaves, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were higher compared to those of microgreens. Breadmaking caused a decrease of SPMs. Chlorophyll degradation was observed, leading to pheophytin and pyropheophytin formation. In kale, sinapoylgentiobiose, a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, concentration increased. Thus, leaves of Brassica species are suitable as natural ingredients for enhancing bioactive SPM concentrations in bread.