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Mass spectrometry-based urinary metabolomics for the investigation on the mechanism of action of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. leaves against ischemic stroke in rats

Wang, Rongjin, Shi, Liqiang, Liu, Shu, Liu, Zhiqiang, Song, Fengrui, Sun, Zhiheng, Liu, Zhongying
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2019 v.241 pp. 111969
Eleutherococcus senticosus, Oriental traditional medicine, aldosterone, amine oxidase (flavin-containing), arachidonic acid, biochemical pathways, biomarkers, biosynthesis, cysteine, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hypertension, ischemia, leaves, mass spectrometry, mechanism of action, metabolomics, methionine, multivariate analysis, nitric oxide synthase, p-cresol, prasterone, prostaglandin synthase, prostaglandins, proteins, rats, steroid hormones, stroke, taurine, therapeutics, tryptophan, tyrosine
As a traditional Chinese medicine, Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. leaves (ESL) can treat ischemic, neurasthenia, and hypertension diseases. However, only few studies have been conducted on the mechanism of action of ESL for ischemic disease treatment.This study aimed to discover the potential biomarkers in the rats caused by ischemic stroke and build a gene–enzyme–biomarker network to explore the mechanism of ESL treatment on ischemic stroke further.The urinary metabolomics strategy was developed by combining UPLC-Q-TOF/MS with multivariate data analysis. The gene-enzyme-biomarker network was built by Cytoscape 3.6.0 on the basis of the potential biomarkers filtered out via urinary metabolomic analysis. Then, the potential target enzymes of ESL in the treatment of ischemic stroke were selected for further validation analysis via the ELISA kits.A total of 42 biomarkers associated with ischemic stroke have been identified, among which 38 species can be adjusted by ESL, including 5′-methylthioadenosine, prostaglandin A2, l-methionine, aldosterone, 11b-hydroxyprogesterone, prostaglandin E3, dehydroepiandrosterone, taurine, 5-methoxyindoleacetate, and p-cresol glucuronide. These biomarkers were involved in several metabolic pathways, including taurine and hypotaurine, arachidonic acid, cysteine and methionine, steroid hormone biosynthesis, tryptophan, and tyrosine metabolism pathways. The gene–enzyme–biomarker network was built, and three predicted target proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), monoamine oxidase (MAO), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), were selected as the potential target enzymes for ESL in ischemic stroke treatment.All results showed that ESL can play a therapeutic role in treating ischemic stroke through different pathways. This study will provide an overall view of the mechanism underlying the action of ESL against ischemic stroke.