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Chitosan based self-assembled nanocapsules as antibacterial agent

Belbekhouche, Sabrina, Bousserrhine, Noureddine, Alphonse, Vanessa, Le Floch, Fannie, Charif Mechiche, Youcef, Menidjel, Ilyes, Carbonnier, Benjamin
Colloids and surfaces 2019 v.181 pp. 158-165
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, acridine orange, alginates, antibacterial properties, antibiotics, bacteria, biodegradability, chitosan, disinfection, electrostatic interactions, gold, hydrolysis, liquids, nanocapsules, nanogold, nanoparticles, polymers, spectroscopy, staining, therapeutics, transmission electron microscopy
Creating an appropriate antibacterial disinfection system without forming any harmful compounds is still a major challenge and calls for new technologies for efficient disinfection and microbial control. Towards this aim, we report on the elaboration of biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric nanocapsules, also called hollow nanoparticles, for potential applications in antibiotic therapy. These nanomaterials are based on the self-assembly of charged polysaccharides, namely chitosan and alginate, onto gold nanoparticles as a sacrificial matrix (60 nm). Electrostatic interactions between the protonated amine groups of chitosan (+35 mV) and the carboxylate groups of alginate (- 20 mV) are the driving attraction force enabling the elaboration of well-ordered multilayer films onto the spherical substrate. The removal of the colloidal gold, via cyanide-assisted hydrolysis, is evidenced by time-dependent variation of the gold spectroscopic signature (30 min is required). TEM shows the obtention of nanocapsules. An inhibitory effect of these particles has been demonstrated during the growth of two representative bacteria in a liquid medium: Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) (from 4.6% to 16.3% for gold nanomaterials + and from 18.6% to 34.9% for (chi+/alg−)n-chi+ nanocapsules) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) (from 5.4% to 20% for gold nanomaterials and from 23.7% to 40% for (chi+/alg−)n-chi+ nanocapsules). Acridine orange staining demonstrated the bactericidal effect of chitosan-based capsules. These findings demonstrate that (chitosan/alginate)n capsules can be exploited as new antibacterial material. Thus, we present a complementary approach to classical nanoparticles prepared by complexation between alginate and chitosan or other materials.