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Pollution characteristics of 15 gas- and particle-phase phthalates in indoor and outdoor air in Hangzhou
- Ouyang, Xingzi, Xia, Meng, Shen, Xueyou, Zhan, Yu
- Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2019 v.86 pp. 107-119
- air, human health, humidity, molecular weight, particulates, phthalates, plasticizers, pollutants, pollution, residential areas, risk, temperature
- Phthalate esters (PAEs), typical pollutants widely used as plasticizers, are ubiquitous in various indoor and outdoor environments. PAEs exist in both gas and particle phases, posing risks to human health. In the present study, we chose four typical kinds of indoor and outdoor environments with the longest average human residence times to assess the human exposure in Hangzhou, including newly decorated residences, ordinary residences, offices and outdoor air. In order to analyze the pollution levels and characteristics of 15 gas- and particle-phase PAEs in indoor and outdoor environments, air and particulate samples were collected simultaneously. The total PAEs concentrations in the four types of environments were 25,396, 25,466.8, 15,388.8 and 3616.2 ng/m3, respectively. DEHP and DEP were the most abundant, and DMPP was at the lowest level. Distinct variations in the distributions of indoor/outdoor, gas/particle-phase and different molecular weights of PAEs were observed, showing that indoor environments were the main sources of PAEs pollution. While most PAEs tended to exsit in indoor sites and gas-phase, the high-molecular-weight chemicals tended to exist in the particle-phase and were mainly found in PM2.5. PAEs were more likely adsorbed by small particles, especially for the indoor environments. There existed a good correlation between the particle matter concentrations and the PAEs levels. In addition, neither temperature nor humidity had obvious effects on the distributions of the PAEs concentrations.