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Effect of water-driven changes in rice rhizosphere on Cd lability in three soils with different pH
- Wang, Jinjin, Li, Dongqin, Lu, Qin, Zhang, Yulong, Xu, Huijuan, Wang, Xueli, Li, Yongtao
- Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2020 v.87 pp. 82-92
- acid soils, cadmium, heading, iron, oxidation, oxygen, paddy soils, polluted soils, principal component analysis, rhizosphere, rice, secretion, soil pH, tillering, water management, China
- Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of water management, namely continuous flooding (CF), intermittent flooding (IF) and non-flooding (NF), on Cd phytoavailaility in three paddy soils that differed in pH and in Cd concentrations. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique was employed to monitor soil labile Cd and Fe concentrations simultaneously at three growth stages (tillering, heading and mature stage) of rice. The Cd phytoavailability were generally in the order of NF > IF > CF, and higher rice Cd (over permitted level, 0.2 mg/kg) were only found in neutral and acidic soils under NF conditions. DGT measured soil labile Cd rather than total Cd was the most reliable predictor for Cd accumulation in rice. CF enhanced the formation of root plaques, which related to oxidation of large quantities of available Fe on root surfaces due to the O2 secretion of rice root. The Cd concentration in root plaques shared the same trend with DGT-Cd. Generally, root plaques would inhibit Cd uptake by rice under CF conditions, while under IF and NF conditions, root plaques act as a temporarily store of Cd, and soil labile Cd is the key factor that controls the transfer of Cd from soil to rice. The results of principle component analysis revealed that water management had the greatest effect on soil Cd lability and rice Cd in acidic soil. Thus, it is important to consider the availability of Cd and soil pH when assessing current agricultural practices of contaminated soil in China.