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Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Sadeghi, Alireza, Shab-Bidar, Sakineh, Parohan, Mohammad, Djafarian, Kurosh
Nutrition and cancer 2019 v.71 no.6 pp. 939-953
cholesterol, dose response, fat intake, meta-analysis, nutrition risk assessment, observational studies, ovarian neoplasms, systematic review
Observational studies have reported controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and ovarian cancer. This dose–response meta-analysis aimed to clarify quantitatively the association between dietary fat intake and ovarian cancer. The linear and non-linear relationships between fat intake and risk of ovarian cancer were investigated. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were also assessed. Overall, 21 studies involved approximately 900,000 subjects were included. A significant nonlinear association was found between total fat intake with the risk of ovarian cancer, with a relatively steep slope at total fat intake higher than 30 g/day (p non-linearity <.01). Moreover, the risk of ovarian cancer was increased in non-linear form for both saturated and monounsaturated fat from 25 g/day (p non-linearity <.05). According to the findings from the linear meta-analysis, we observed a 2, 2, 1, and 1% greater risk of ovarian cancer per 10, 0.5, 2.5 g/day and 50 mg/day increase in total, trans and monounsaturated fat intake as well as cholesterol, respectively. However, this association for monounsaturated fat was marginally significant (p=.052). The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that dietary total, trans, saturated and partially monounsaturated fat as well as cholesterol intake are positively associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer.