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Parboiling of sorghum grains as a strategy to improve endosperm yield and mineral content of refined flours

Galán, María Gimena, Drago, SR
Food science and technology international 2019 v.25 no.1 pp. 16-23
Sorghum bicolor, ash content, calcium, copper, endosperm, flour, grains, iron, lipids, magnesium, mineral content, nutrients, parboiling, polyphenols, soaking, sodium, temperature, zinc
The aims were (i) to optimize the parboiling/decorticating process by assessing the effects of parboiling soaking temperature (60–80 ℃) and pearling time (4–6 min and 5.5–9.5 min for red and white sorghum) on endosperm yield and ash content, to obtain pregelatinized refined flours from parboiling sorghum (RF-PS) and (ii) to evaluate the final content of selected nutrients in RF-PS obtained in these optimal conditions. Endosperm yield decreased with the increase of pearling time, and a maximum around 70 ℃ soaking temperature was observed. Ash content decreased with increasing soaking temperature and pearling time. The optimal conditions of soaking temperature–pearling time were 73.3 ℃–4.8 min for red sorghum and 67.9 ℃–8.6 min for white sorghum, considering maximum endosperm yield and ash content lower than 0.65 g/100 g. In RF-PS obtained under optimal conditions, protein, lipid, Cu, and free polyphenols were higher in red sorghum than white sorghum (10.16 ± 0.62 vs. 9.42 ± 0.61 g/100 g, 0.89 ± 0.16 vs. 0.62 ± 0.11 g/100 g, 2.08 ± 0.21 vs. 1.88 ± 0.20 mg/kg, 79.51 ± 14.51 vs. 63.82 ± 4.33 mg/100 g). Fe, Zn, Ca, and Na were higher in white sorghum than red sorghum (20.61 ± 2.92 vs. 17.56 ± 0.98 mg/kg, 11.94 ± 0.84 vs. 9.58 ± 1.65 mg/kg, 87.45 ± 12.91 vs. 75.31 ± 12.57 mg/kg, 129.62 ± 9.03 vs. 102.69 ± 28.34 mg/kg). No difference was observed in the contents of ash, Mg, and K. It was possible to improve endosperm yield using a parboiling process prior to decortication. In addition, this process contributes to increase the mineral content in RF-PS.