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Utilization of carbon sources in the rice rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils with different long‐term fertilization management
- Tang, Haiming, Xiao, Xiaoping, Xu, Yilan, Li, Chao, Cheng, Kaikai, Pan, Xiaochen, Li, Weiyan
- Journal of basic microbiology 2019 v.59 no.6 pp. 621-631
- Gemmatimonadetes, Oryza sativa, amino acids, bacterial communities, carbon, community structure, double cropping, fertilizer application, gamma-Proteobacteria, gene ontology, metabolism, metagenomics, mineral fertilizers, organic matter, paddies, paddy soils, prediction, proteins, rhizosphere, rice, rice straw, soil fertility, soil microorganisms, unigenes, China
- Carbon (C) plays an important role in the interaction between plant and rhizosphere microbial communities, but there is still limited information about how C source utilization soil microbial structure responds to soil fertility changes under the double‐cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system in Southern China paddy fields. Therefore, the effects of long‐term (33 years) fertilizer regimes on the characteristics of C utilization in both rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils under double‐cropping rice fields in Southern China were investigated by using the metagenome sequencing technology. The experiment began in 1986, and included five fertilizer treatments: without fertilizer input (CK), chemical fertilizer alone (MF), rice straw residue and chemical fertilizer (RF), 30% organic matter, and 70% chemical fertilizer (LOM), and 60% organic matter and 40% chemical fertilizer (HOM). The results showed that the relative abundance of Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetia in both the rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils was increased by application of rice straw residue and organic manure, whereas the relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and Nitrospira was promoted by application of inorganic fertilizers. The largest group of clusters of orthologous groups of proteins categories was “amino acid transport and metabolism” with 16.46% unigenes, followed by “general function prediction only” (12.23%). Regarding the gene ontology categories, biological process were the largest category (174 949, 46.40%), followed by cellular component (126 766, 33.62%), and molecular function (110 353, 29.26%). The principal coordinate analysis indicated that different parts of the root zone were the most important factors affecting the variation of C source utilization bacteria community, and the different fertilizer treatments were the second important factor affecting the variation of C source utilization bacteria community. As a result, the application of fertilization practices had significant effects on the abundance and community composition of C source utilization microbes in paddy soils. The results showed that the combined application of rice straw residue or organic manure with chemical fertilizer practices significantly increases the C source utilization of soil microorganisms in double‐cropping rice fields.