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Diplotriaena—An Air Sac Nematode Found in a New Holland Honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae)

Gosbell, Matthew C., Luk, Kathy H. Y.
Journal of avian medicine and surgery 2019 v.33 no.2 pp. 189-192
Nematoda, adults, air sacs, birds, eggs, epithelium, histology, hyperplasia, insects, larvae, lungs, metaplasia, necropsy, parasites, Australia
A New Holland honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae), a common species found mostly in the southern parts of Australia, was examined after a presumed traumatic incident but died several hours after presentation. At necropsy, a Diplotriaena nematode was found in a cranial air sac. Although no obvious gross pathologic changes were attributed to the nematode, histologic changes of bronchial epithelial hyperplasia and goblet cell metaplasia, consistent with chronic airway irritation were found in the lungs associated with Diplotriaena eggs. Diplotriaena species are parasitic nematodes found in the air sacs of birds. These parasites have an indirect life cycle; larval stages develop in insects, and when eaten by the host, these larvae migrate to the air sac and become adults. Although Diplotriaena species have been found in birds worldwide, none, to our knowledge, have previously been described in New Holland honeyeaters.