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Inequality of female health and its relation with urbanization level in China: geographic variation perspective
- Yang, Hao, Pu, Haixia, Wang, Shaobing, Ni, Runxiang, Li, Bin
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.16 pp. 16662-16673
- animal ovaries, coal, females, fuel oils, geographical variation, issues and policy, mortality, natural gas, ovarian neoplasms, regression analysis, risk, urbanization, uterine cervical neoplasms, value added, China
- Urbanization development plays a vital role in the health of modern residents; however, there have been very limited researches to specifically and comprehensively explore the relationship between urbanization level evaluating indicators (ULEIs) and female health outcomes. The mortality rate of breast cancer (BC), cervical cancer (CC), and ovarian cancer (OC) and classified urbanization factor are collected at provincial level. Stepwise regression model (SRM) and geographically weighted regression model (GWRM) are conducted to obtain spatial relationship between the mortality rate of those cancer and ULEI. Our results show that there is remarkable difference of mortality rate of BC, CC, and OC in different provinces as well as higher BC, CC, and OC distributed in northern regions. The increase of value added of primary industry (VAPI), taxi, and coal consumption has detrimental effect on BC and CC. Fuel oil consumption (FOC) ultimately results in increase of mortality rate of BC and OC, and urban fixed asset investment (UFAI) poses a risk to increase the mortality rate of OC. Contrarily, natural gas consumption (NGC) appear to mitigate mortality rate of BC. In particular, our findings demonstrate that there exist spatial differences for VAPI, FOC, NGC, taxi, and coal consumption influencing BC, CC, and OC. It is suggested that policy makers should take account of regional discrepancy and implement a sustainable urbanization development considering female health.