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Occurrence and distribution of vermiform plant-parasitic nematodes and the relationship with soil factors in field pea (Pisum sativum) in North Dakota, USA

Upadhaya, Arjun, Yan, Guiping, Pasche, Julie, Kalil, Audrey
Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Paratrichodorus, Paratylenchus, Pisum sativum, Pratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, Xiphinema, clay, correspondence analysis, crop production, nutrients, organic matter, pH, peas, plant parasitic nematodes, sand fraction, silt, soil sampling, surveys, texture, variance, North Dakota
Plant-parasitic nematodes restrict crop growth and cause yield loss in field pea (dry edible pea). A 4-year survey of commercial pea fields was conducted in North Dakota, one of the leading producers of field pea in the USA, to investigate nematode distribution, prevalence, abundance and association with soil properties. Beginning in 2014, a total of 243 soil samples were collected from 16 counties, and soil properties of 115 samples were analysed to determine the association of nematodes with soil factors (texture, organic matter, nutrients). The plant-parasitic nematode genera, Paratylenchus (absolute frequency = 58-100%; mean density = 470-1550 (200 g soil)⁻¹; greatest density = 7114 (200 g soil)⁻¹) and Tylenchorhynchus (30-80%; 61-261; 1980, respectively), were the most frequent and widely distributed. Pratylenchus and Helicotylenchus were identified in one-third of the counties surveyed with mean densities ranging from 43 to 224 and 36 to 206 (200 g soil)⁻¹, respectively. Xiphinema was found relatively frequently but at low densities. Hoplolaimus and Paratrichodorus were rarely detected at lower densities. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that soil factors explained 19% of the total variance of nematode genera abundance. The relationship between nematode abundance and soil sand content and pH was significant, while clay, silt, organic matter and nutrients were not significantly related to nematode abundance. This is the first multi-year study investigating nematodes associated with field peas and their relationship with soil factors in a major field pea production region of the USA.