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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins regulate immune response of Antheraea pernyi in different ways

Liu, Wei, Wang, Yong, Zhou, Jinglin, Zhang, Ying, Ma, Yueyue, Wang, Deyi, Jiang, Yiren, Shi, Shenglin, Qin, Li
Journal of invertebrate pathology 2019 v.166 pp. 107204
Antheraea pernyi, Enterococcus, RNA interference, adenosine monophosphate, amidase, amino acid sequences, amino acids, antimicrobial peptides, clones, complementary DNA, enzyme activity, genes, immune response, innate immunity, lysozyme, messenger RNA, microorganisms, pathogens, peptidoglycans, proteins, signal transduction, silkworms
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are evolutionarily conserved molecules that act in innate immune responses against invading pathogens. Insect PGRPs activate the Toll and/or immune deficiency (IMD) signal transduction pathways. They induce cellular and humoral immune defense reactions that effectively protect insects from invasion of microorganisms. In this study, four cDNA clones encoding PGRPs (ApPGRP-A, ApPGRP-B, ApPGRP-C, ApPGRP-LE) were isolated from the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi. The deduced amino acid sequences of ApPGRP-B and -C share high identity with enzymatically active PGRP proteins and contain the amino acids required for amidase activity. The spatiotemporal expression patterns of ApPGRPs and their response to immune stimulations were determined, and suggest that PGRPs might act as a broad-spectrum pattern recognition protein and participate in the pathway activation system. Here, using an RNA-interference approach, we examined the function of PGRPs in response to immune stimulation. We observed that RNAi-mediated silencing of ApPGRP-A decreased the tested antimicrobial peptides (Attacin, Attacin 2, Ceropin, Gloverin, lysozyme and Lebocin) in response to Enterococcus pernyi challenge. However, reducing the ApPGRP-B, -C mRNA levels led to a strong increase of the AMP genes (except for Lebocin). These results suggest that ApPGRPs are necessary for pathway initiation complex formation and activate AMP generation. Our data also indicated that PGRP-B and -C down-regulate AMPs generation in the immune response.