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Use of sodium butyrate in the feeding of Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) juvenile

Luz, Joaldo Rocha, Ramos, Ana Paula Souza, Melo, José Fernando Bibiano, Braga, Luís Gustavo Tavares
Aquaculture 2019
Arapaima gigas, aeration, ammonia, amylases, aspartate transaminase, blood plasma, blood proteins, carboxylic ester hydrolases, chemical analysis, cholesterol, crude protein, diet, dissolved oxygen, energy, enzyme activity, feed conversion, feed intake, filtration, fish, glucose, glycogen, hematocrit, hepatosomatic index, histology, intestines, juveniles, oxygen, pH, proteinases, satiety, sodium butyrate, specific growth rate, tanks, temperature, triacylglycerols, water quality, weight gain
The objective of this study was to evaluate the sodium butyrate in the feeding of pirarucu juveniles, Arapaima gigas. Seventy - five juveniles of A. gigas (132.07 ± 3.12 g) were distributed in fifteen 310 L- tanks with constant aeration, filtration system and closed water recirculation. A completely randomized design the experiment, with four treatments including sodium butyrate (98%) in the diets (BS0 = control diet without sodium butyrate, BS1 = 0.5 g kg−1, BS2 = 1.0 g kg−1, BS3 = 1.5 g kg−1, BS4 = 2.0 g kg−1) with three replicates, and five juvenile treatment−1. The fish were fed three times day−1 (8, 12 and 16 h), until apparent satiety, for 45 days. Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and ammonia were monitored three times in the week. The growth parameters as weight gain, mean feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, and survival were evaluated. It was performed chemical analysis of the whole body to establish dry matter, crude protein, ethereal extract, ash and gross energy. The hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index of juveniles also were evaluated. Histological sections of the intestine showed greater villous height and enzymatic activity of amylase, lipase and nonspecific alkaline protease. The blood plasma of juveniles was analyzed, as the hematocrit, total plasma protein concentration, triglyceride, glucose, and cholesterol. The inclusion of 1.17 g kg−1 of sodium butyrate in diets for A. gigas juveniles improves the growth parameters. This level favors feed conversion ratio increased intestinal villous height, without interfering in the blood parameters, and promote the adaptation of the enzymatic activity of amylase, lipase and nonspecific alkaline protease. Furthermore, it reduces the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and increases hepatic glycogen levels, making the animals more resistant to potentially stressful conditions in the growing environment.