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Air-water exchange of pesticidal persistent organic pollutants in the lower stretch of the transboundary river Ganga, India
- Khuman, Sanjenbam Nirmala, Chakraborty, Paromita
- Chemosphere 2019 v.233 pp. 966-974
- DDT (pesticide), HCH (pesticide), air, endosulfan, fish, lindane, liquid-air interface, persistent organic pollutants, risk, risk assessment, rivers, surface water, India
- The lower stretch of the perennial transboundary river Ganga is known as the Hooghly River (HR) in India. Despite the strict ban, HR has been evidenced with residues of pesticidal persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from primary and secondary sources. Hence surface water sampling and passive air sampling (PAS) were conducted along the urban and suburban transects and discharge points to study the fate of pesticidal (POPs along the HR. Excluding the discharge points, the mean concentration of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and endosulfan (ENDO) were 6 ng/L, 4 ng/L and 36 ng/L in surface water and 888 pg/m3, 1689 pg/m3 and 429 pg/m3 in atmosphere respectively. Percentage composition and diagnostic ratios strongly suggest ongoing use of technical HCH, DDT and endosulfan. Elevated endosulfan in surface water has been related to its usage during fishing. Except for p,p’-DDE, α-Endo and β-Endo, fluxes at the air-water interface showed net deposition from air to water for all the OCPs in urban and suburban transects. The estimated eco-toxicological risk assessment showed risk on lower trophic organisms due to DDT and lindane mostly at the discharge points. Endosulfan can pose potential risk to the edible fishe species in the HR.