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Long-term fertilization and manuring with different organics alter stability of carbon in colloidal organo-mineral fraction in soils of varying clay mineralogy
- Das, Ruma, Purakayastha, T.J., Das, Debarup, Ahmed, Nayan, Kumar, Rahul, Biswas, Sunanda, Walia, S.S., Singh, Rohitashav, Shukla, V.K., Yadava, M.S., Ravisankar, N., Datta, S.C.
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.684 pp. 682-693
- Alfisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, NPK fertilizers, Vertisols, aluminum oxide, animal manures, best management practices, carbon, clay, crystallites, desorption, fertilizer application, green manures, illite, iron oxides, nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizers, organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, smectite
- Majority of organic matter is bound to clay minerals to form stable colloidal organo-mineral fraction (COMF) in soil. Stability of carbon (C) in COMF is crucial for long-term C sequestration in soil. However, information on the effect of long-term fertilization and manuring with various organic sources on C stability in such fraction in soils with varying clay mineralogy is scarce. The present study was, therefore, carried out to assess the effect of thirty-one years of continuous fertilization and manuring with different organics on C-stability in COMF extracted from an Inceptisol, a Vertisol, a Mollisol, and an Alfisol. The treatments comprised of control (no fertilization), 100% NPK (100% of recommended N, P and K through fertilizer), 50% NPK+ 50% of recommended N supplied through either farm yard manure (FYM) or cereal residue (CR) or green manure (GM). The stability of C (1/k) in COMF was determined from desorption rate constant (k) of humus-C by sequential extraction and correlated with extractable amorphous Fe-Al-Si-oxides, and crystallite size of illite minerals. Long-term fertilization and manuring with the above sources of organic altered the contents of amorphous Fe-Al-Si-oxides, and decreased the crystallite size of illite in all the soil orders. Fifty percent substitution of fertilizer N by various organics significantly increased C-stability in COMF by 27–221% (mean 111%) over full dose of NPK (100% NPK). Smectite dominating Vertisol exhibited highest stability of C followed by the Mollisol, the Inceptisol and the Alfisol. Stability of such C in soil was correlated positively with the amount of amorphous Fe and Al oxides but negatively with crystallite size of illite (r = −0.46, P < 0.01). Application of NPK + GM or NPK + FYM in Inceptisol, Vertisol and Mollisol and NPK + GM or NPK + CR in Alfisol emerged as the best management practices for higher stabilization of C in COMF for long-term C sequestration.