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Effects of atrazine on life parameters, oxidative stress, and ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus
- Yoon, Deok-Seo, Park, Jun Chul, Park, Heum Gi, Lee, Jae-Seong, Han, Jeonghoon
- Aquatic toxicology 2019 v.213 pp. 105213
- Tigriopus japonicus, acute toxicity, adults, adverse effects, atrazine, biochemical pathways, biosynthesis, chronic exposure, ecdysone receptor, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, enzyme activity, gene expression regulation, genes, messenger RNA, metamorphosis, molting, mortality, nauplii, oxidative stress
- Atrazine is a widely used pesticide which acts as an endocrine disruptor in various organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate adverse effects of atrazine on life parameters, oxidative stress, and ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In T. japonicus, no mortality was shown in response to atrazine up to 20 mg/L in acute toxicity assessment. In nauplii, retardation in the growth and prolonged molting and metamorphosis resulted under chronic exposure of atrazine at 20 mg/L. In addition, body sizes of T. japonicus nauplii were significantly decreased (P < 0.01 in length and P < 0.001 in width) in response to 20 mg/L of atrazine. Furthermore, atrazine induced oxidative stress by the generation of reactive oxygen species at all concentrations compared to the control in the nauplii. Also, significant increase in glutathione-S transferase activity was observed in adult T. japonicus at low concentration of atrazine. To understand effects of atrazine on ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway-involved genes (e.g., neverland, CYP307E1, CYP306A1, CYP302A1, CYP3022A1 [CYP315A1], CYP314A1, and CYP18D1) were examined with mRNA expressions of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP) in response to 20 mg/L atrazine in nauplii and adults. In the nauplii, these genes were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05) in response to atrazine, compared to the control but not in the adult T. japonicus. These results suggest that atrazine can interfere in vivo life parameters by oxidative stress-induced retrogression and ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway in this species.