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Current state of the nanoscale delivery systems for temoporfin-based photodynamic therapy: Advanced delivery strategies

Yakavets, Ilya, Millard, Marie, Zorin, Vladimir, Lassalle, Henri-Pierre, Bezdetnaya, Lina
Journal of controlled release 2019 v.304 pp. 268-287
carbon nanotubes, hydrophobicity, nanoparticles, neoplasms, photochemotherapy, photosensitizing agents
Enthusiasm for photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a promising technique to eradicate various cancers has increased exponentially in recent decades. The majority of clinically approved photosensitizers are hydrophobic in nature, thus, the effective delivery of photosensitizers at the targeted site is the main hurdle associated with PDT. Temoporfin (mTHPC, medicinal product name: Foscan®), is one of the most potent clinically approved photosensitizers, is not an exception. Successful temoporfin-PDT requires nanoscale delivery systems for selective delivery of photosensitizer. Over the last 25 years, the number of papers on nanoplatforms developed for mTHPC delivery such as conjugates, host-guest inclusion complexes, lipid-and polymer-based nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes is burgeoning. However, none of them appeared to be “ultimate”. The present review offers the description of different challenges and achievements in nanoparticle-based mTHPC delivery focusing on the synergetic combination of various nano-platforms to improve temoporfin delivery at all stages of biodistribution. Furthermore, the association of different nanoparticles in one nanoplatform might be considered as an advanced strategy allowing the combination of several treatment modalities.