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Absolute removal of ciprofloxacin and its degraded byproducts in aqueous solution using an efficient electrochemical oxidation process coupled with adsorption treatment technique
- Ganesan, Sivarasan, Amirthalingam, Mohankumar, Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi, Govindan, Shanmugam, Palanisamy, Sundararaj, Lingassamy, Arul Pragasan, Ponnusamy, Vinoth Kumar
- Journal of environmental management 2019 v.245 pp. 409-417
- Caenorhabditis elegans, activated carbon, adsorption, adverse effects, anodes, antibiotics, aquatic animals, aqueous solutions, byproducts, ciprofloxacin, cost effectiveness, electrochemistry, electrolysis, fluorides, genes, human communities, ions, morbidity, mortality, oxidation, pH, sulfates, superoxide dismutase, toxicity
- Pharmaceutical-based contaminants are the major reasons for morbidity and mortality in aquatic animals and lead to several side effects and diseases in human community. Availability of proper, efficient, and cost-effective treatment technologies is still scarce. In this study, an efficient combined treatment technique (electrochemical oxidation and adsorption processes) was developed for the complete detoxification of most commonly used antibiotic, ciprofloxacin in aqueous solution. Electrochemical degradation of ciprofloxacin was performed using titanium-based tri-metal oxide mesh type anode, and the effective oxidative potential, electrolysis time, and pH for the degradation of ciprofloxacin were thoroughly evaluated. Sulfate, fluoride ions and toxic byproducts generated during electrochemical oxidation of ciprofloxacin were subsequently removed through a simple adsorption treatment using activated charcoal for 90 min. Further, the toxicity of the treated water was assessed with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans species at different time intervals by observing the expressions of important stress-responsive genes viz., sod-3, hsp-16.2, ctl-1,2,3 and gst-4. The results exhibited that the combined process of electrochemical oxidation and adsorption treatment is simple, low-cost as well as effective to eliminate ciprofloxacin and its toxic byproducts in aqueous solution.