Main content area

Molecular evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum in the field

Kim, Nam-Hyung, Ha, Eun-Jin, Ko, Dae-Sung, Lee, Chung-Young, Kim, Jae-Hong, Kwon, Hyuk-Joon
Veterinary microbiology 2019 v.235 pp. 63-70
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, chickens, egg drop syndrome, evolution, financial economics, fowl typhoid, genomics, live vaccines, mortality, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, pseudogenes, transferases, Korean Peninsula
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG) causes fowl typhoid (FT) and substantial economic loss in Korea due to egg drop syndrome and mortality. Despite the extensive use of vaccines, FT still occurs in the field. Therefore, the emergence of more pathogenic SG or the recovered pathogenicity of a vaccine strain has been suspected. SpvB, an ADP-ribosyl transferase, is a major pathogenesis determinant, and the length of the polyproline linker (PPL) of SpvB affects pathogenic potency. SG strains accumulate pseudogenes in their genomes during host adaptation, and pseudogene profiling may provide evolutionary information. In this study, we found that the PPL length of Korean SG isolates varied from 11 to 21 prolines and was longer than that of a live vaccine strain, SG 9R (9 prolines). According to growth competition in chickens, the growth of an SG isolate with a PPL length of 17 prolines exceeded that of an SG isolate with a PPL length of 15 prolines. We investigated the pseudogenes of the field isolates, SG 9R and reference strains in GenBank by resequencing and comparative genomics. The pseudogene profiles of the field isolates were notably different from those of the foreign SG strains, and they were subdivided into 7 pseudogene subgroups. Collectively, the field isolates had gradually evolved by changing PPL length and acquiring additional pseudogenes. Thus, the characterization of PPL length and pseudogene profiling may be useful to understand the molecular evolution of SG and the epidemiology of FT.