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Evaluation of adult and offspring thiamine deficiency in salmonine species from Lake Ontario

Futia, Matthew H., Rinchard, Jacques
Journal of Great Lakes research 2019 v.45 no.4 pp. 811-820
Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Salmo trutta, Salvelinus namaycush, adults, eggs, fisheries, laboratory experimentation, liver, monitoring, mortality, muscle tissues, progeny, surface water, thiamin, Lake Ontario, Lake Superior
Thiamine Deficiency Complex (TDC) is an ongoing problem impacting salmonine health in various waterbodies, including Lake Ontario. The prevalence of TDC has been variable and explanations for differences are limited. In the current study, thiamine concentrations were measured in eggs, liver tissue, and muscle tissue sampled from brown trout (Salmo trutta), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) that were collected from Lake Ontario and its surrounding tributaries. The occurrence of TDC was measured for each species based on TDC-induced offspring mortality rates under laboratory conditions. TDC-induced offspring mortality was observed for all species except brown trout. For affected species, egg free thiamine (Th) was consistently low compared to lake trout collected from Lake Superior that are considered thiamine replete. In addition, species with the lowest percentages of Th in their eggs were the most susceptible to TDC, suggesting that limited thiamine reserves in the form of Th may cause TDC-induced offspring mortality. Lastly, our results show that egg thiamine concentrations have yearly variation and increased for all species throughout the study. Reasons for such variation are undetermined; but, if egg thiamine concentrations continue to increase, the impacts of TDC on these salmonine species may lessen. Future monitoring is needed for determining if thiamine concentrations are increasing and the potential impacts that may have on the entire Lake Ontario fishery.