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L- arginine minimizes immunosuppression and prothrombin time and enhances the genotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil in rats

de Andrade Bernal Fagiani, Marcela, Fluminhan, Antônio, de Azevedo Mello, Fabíola, Yabuki, Denise, Gonçalves, Gracielle Vieira, Tsujigushi, Leticia Kazama, Pereira, Liliane Girotto, da Silva, Kesia Araújo, da Silva, Sara Bertozo Bezerra, Santarem, Cecilia Laposy, Giozo, Paulo Felipe Izique, de Souza Reis, Luis Souza Lima
Nutrition 2019
DNA, DNA damage, arginine, diarrhea, drinking water, drug therapy, eosinophils, fluorouracil, genotoxicity, immunosuppression, jejunum, laboratory animals, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, polycythemia, prothrombin, rats, spleen, weight loss
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low doses of L-arginine supplementation on hemogram, integrity of DNA and spleen, inflammatory infiltrate in the jejunum, and in the coagulogram of rats submitted to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy.Thirty-two Wistar rats were fed commercial feed and water ad libitum and grouped into 4 (8 rats/group): the control group was applied a 0.9% physiological solution to simulate the application of 5-FU in the other groups; the G5-FU group was applied a dose of 5-FU; the GArg50 and GArg100 groups were applied a dose of 5-FU and supplemented with 50 and 100 mg L-arginine/day added in the drinking water ad libitum.The rats of the GArg50 group did not lose weight after chemotherapy. The GArg50 rats presented polycythemia due to dehydration caused by diarrhea generated by 5-FU. The GArg100 rats had increased total leukocyte count, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and index in the total index of DNA damage, yet showed a reduction in prothrombin time and in the spleen depletion index. Rats from the G5-FU, GArg50, and GArg100 groups had similar moderate inflammatory infiltrate in the jejunum.Supplementation with 100 mg of L-arginine/day minimized immunosuppression, spleen depletion, and prothrombin time and contributed to the breakdown of 5-FU-generated DNA in Wistar rats. Supplementation with 50 mg of L-arginine/day decreased the weight loss generated by 5-FU in Wistar rats. Supplements with 50 or 100 mg of L-arginine did not interfere with the 5-FU generated jejunal inflammatory infiltrate.