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Creatine supplementation exacerbates ethanol-induced hepatic damage in mice

Marinello, Poliana Camila, Cella, P.S., Testa, M.T.J., Guirro, P.B., Brito, W.A.S., Borges, F.H., Cecchini, R., Cecchini, A.L., Duarte, J.A., Deminice, R.
Nutrition 2019 v.66 pp. 122-130
alanine transaminase, blood, carbohydrates, creatine, diet, ethanol, euthanasia, fatty liver, gene expression, histology, inflammation, laboratory animals, lipids, liver, metabolism, mice, models, oxidative stress, protective effect, proteins
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on early stages of ethanol-induced hepatic damage.Male Swiss mice were divided into three groups (n = 12/group): control (C), ethanol (E), and ethanol supplemented with creatine (EC). The control group received a diet containing 15.8% of total calories from proteins, 46.3% from carbohydrates, and 37.9% from lipids. The ethanol and ethanol and creatine groups received diets containing 15.8% of total calories from proteins, 16.2% from carbohydrates, and 34.5% from lipids; the remaining calories were obtained from the addition of 5% of 95% ethanol. Creatine (1%; weight/vol) was added to the diet of EC mice. After 14 and 28 d, six animals from each group were sacrificed, generating subdivisions in each group: C14 and C28, E14 and E28, EC14 and EC28. After sacrifice, the liver was removed, weighed, and prepared for histologic, biochemical, and molecular analysis, and blood was collected.Ethanol intake induced mild cell degeneration, liver damage, oxidative lesions, and inflammation. Surprisingly, ethanol intake combined with creatine exacerbated cell degeneration and fat accumulation, hepatic expression of genes related with ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, and promoted oxidative stress and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.05).Creatine supplementation associated with ethanol is able to interfere in the alcohol metabolism and oxidative stress and to exacerbate ethanol-induced hepatic damage. These new findings are opposite to those observed in several studies where protective effects of creatine in a wide variety of injury models, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, were described.