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In vivo study of microarc oxidation coated Mg alloy as a substitute for bone defect repairing: Degradation behavior, mechanical properties, and bone response

Wu, Yunfeng, Wang, Y.M., Zhao, D.W., Zhang, Nan, Li, Hongyu, Li, Junlei, Wang, Yongxuan, Zhao, Ying, Yan, Jinglong, Zhou, Yu
Colloids and surfaces 2019 v.181 pp. 349-359
alloys, autografting, biocompatibility, cell proliferation, corrosion, histology, in vivo studies, magnesium, micro-computed tomography, models, oxidation, rabbits, strength (mechanics), ulna
Large segmental bone defect healing remains a great challenge in clinic. Limited by the source of autograft, bone graft substitute tends to be the research focus. In the present study, we propose a strategy by using microarc oxidation (MAO) coated magnesium scaffold as a large segmental bone graft substitute, utilizing its combination of strength, degradability, and controllable corrosion rate. Bare substrate, 10 μm and 20 μm thick MAO coated Mg scaffolds were implanted into ulna bone of New Zealand white rabbits, employing a 15 mm wide bone defect model. The biocompatibility and in vivo degradation of the implants, the bone defect healing response, and mechanical properties of the injured bone were investigated. The surface cytocompatibility evaluation results show that the MAO coated Mg are more suitable for cell proliferation. Micro-CT results show that abundant new bone formed and initially bridged the 15 mm gap at 8 weeks. Histological results indicate the newly formed bone was full of maturation at 12 weeks. Three point bending tests reveal that the injured bone possessed sufficient mechanical strength after 12 weeks. A 3-step in vivo degradation mechanism was proposed for the implants. In summary, we observed an actual trial of 15 mm wide bone defect healing where the newly formed bone bridged the bone gap at 8 weeks successfully. These data suggest a great potential of MAO coated magnesium to be a bone graft substitute.