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RNA-Targeted Antiviral Immunity: More Than Just RNA Silencing
- Li, Fangfang, Wang, Aiming
- Trends in microbiology 2019 v.27 no.9 pp. 792-805
- RNA, RNA interference, eukaryotic cells, gene expression, immune response, plant viruses, quality control, viruses
- RNA silencing is a fundamental, evolutionarily conserved mechanism that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes. It also functions as a primary immune defense in microbes, such as viruses in plants. In addition to RNA silencing, RNA decay and RNA quality-control pathways are also two ancestral forms of intrinsic antiviral immunity, and the three RNA-targeted pathways may operate cooperatively for their antiviral function. Plant viruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to suppress RNA silencing and facilitate virus infection. In response, plants may activate a counter-counter-defense mechanism to cope with VSR-mediated RNA silencing suppression. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of RNA silencing, RNA decay, and RNA quality control in antiviral defense, and highlight the mechanisms by which viruses compromise RNA-targeted immunity for their infection and survival in plants.