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Hormone-sensitive lipase is a retinyl ester hydrolase in human and rat quiescent hepatic stellate cells

Shajari, Shiva, Saeed, Ali, Smith-Cortinez, Natalia F., Heegsma, Janette, Sydor, Svenja, Faber, Klaas Nico
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2019 v.1864 no.9 pp. 1258-1267
droplets, extracellular matrix, fibrosis, hepatocytes, humans, hydrolysis, isoproterenols, liver, messenger RNA, metabolism, phospholipases, phosphorylation, protein content, rats, retinyl palmitate, trees, triacylglycerol lipase, triacylglycerols, vitamin A
Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) store vitamin A as retinyl esters and control circulating retinol levels. Upon liver injury, quiescent (q)HSC lose their vitamin A and transdifferentiate to myofibroblasts, e.g. activated (a)HSC, which promote fibrosis by producing excessive extracellular matrix. Adipose triglyceride lipase/patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 2 (ATGL/PNPLA2) and adiponutrin (ADPN/PNPLA3) have so far been shown to mobilize retinol from retinyl esters in HSC. Here, we studied the putative role of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL/LIPE) in HSC, as it is the major retinyl ester hydrolase (REH) in adipose tissue.Lipe/HSL expression was analyzed in rat liver and primary human and rat qHSC and culture-activated aHSC. Retinyl hydrolysis was analyzed after Isoproterenol-mediated phosphorylation/activation of HSL.Primary human HSC contain 2.5-fold higher LIPE mRNA levels compared to hepatocytes. Healthy rat liver contains significant mRNA and protein levels of HSL/Lipe, which predominates in qHSC and cells of the portal tree. Q-PCR comparison indicates that Lipe mRNA levels in qHSC are dominant over Pnpla2 and Pnpla3. HSL is mostly phosphorylated/activated in qHSC and partly colocalizes with vitamin A-containing lipid droplets. Lipe/HSL and Pnpla3 expression is rapidly lost during HSC culture-activation, while Pnpla2 expression is maintained. HSL super-activation by isoproterenol accelerates loss of lipid droplets and retinyl palmitate from HSC, which coincided with a small, but significant reduction in HSC proliferation and suppression of Collagen1A1 mRNA and protein levels.In conclusion, HSL participates in vitamin A metabolism in qHSC. Equivalent activities of ATGL and ADPN provide the healthy liver with multiple routes to control circulating retinol levels.