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Retrospective analysis of Cryptosporidium species in Western Australian human populations (2015–2018), and emergence of the C. hominis IfA12G1R5 subtype

Braima, Kamil, Zahedi, Alireza, Oskam, Charlotte, Reid, Simon, Pingault, Nevada, Xiao, Lihua, Ryan, Una
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2019 v.73 pp. 306-313
Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium parvum, diarrhea, feces, genes, glycoproteins, human population, humans, loci, patients, retrospective studies, ribosomal RNA, sequence analysis, United States, Western Australia
Cryptosporidium species are a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. In the present study, a retrospective analysis of 109 microscopically Cryptosporidium-positive faecal specimens from Western Australian patients, collected between 2015 and 2018 was conducted. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA and the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene loci identified four Cryptosporidium species: C. hominis (86.2%, 94/109), C. parvum (11.0%, 12/109), C. meleagridis (1.8%, 2/109) and C. viatorum (0.9%, 1/109). Subtyping at the gp60 locus identified a total of 11 subtypes including the emergence of the previously rare C. hominis IfA12G1R5 subtype in 2017 as the dominant subtype (46.7%, 21/45). This subtype has also recently emerged as the dominant subtype in the United States but the reasons for its emergence are unknown. This is also the first report of C. viatorum in humans in Australia and a novel subtype (XVaA3g) was identified in the one positive patient.