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Determination of free cyano-cobinamide in swine and rabbit plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
- Dzisam, Joseph K., Brenner, Matthew, Mahon, Sari B., Rockwood, Gary A., Logue, Brian A.
- Journal of chromatography 2019 v.1124 pp. 100-108
- acetonitrile, ammonium hydroxide, cobalt, cyanides, detection limit, ligands, liquid chromatography, pharmacokinetics, poisoning, proteins, rabbits, standard deviation, swine, tandem mass spectrometry, therapeutics, vitamin B12
- In recent years, Cobinamide (Cbi) has shown promise as a therapeutic for cyanide poisoning. There are several forms of Cbi based on the identity of the ligands bound to the cobalt in Cbi and these different forms of Cbi have divergent behavior (e.g., the aquo and hydroxo forms of Cbi readily bind to proteins, limiting their distribution significantly, whereas [Cbi(CN)2] does not). While current analysis techniques only measure total Cbi, methods to elucidate the behavior of ‘available’ Cbi versus cyanide-complexed Cbi would be valuable for biomedical and pharmacokinetic studies. Therefore, a method was developed for the analysis of cyanide-complexed Cbi in plasma via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Plasma samples were prepared by denaturing proteins with 10% ammonium hydroxide in acetonitrile. The resulting mixture was centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed, dried, and reconstituted. Cyanide-complexed Cbi was then analyzed via LC-MS-MS. The limit of detection was 0.2 μM, and the linear dynamic range was between 1 and 200 μM. The accuracy was 100 ± 17% and the precision, measured by relative standard deviation (%RSD), was ≤18.5%. Carryover, a severe problem when analyzing Cbi via liquid chromatography was eliminated using a polymeric-based stationary phase (PLRP-S) and a controlled washing protocol. The method allowed evaluation of the cyanide-bound and ‘available’ Cbi from treated animals and, when paired with a method for total Cbi analysis, allows for estimation of Cbi utilization when treating cyanide poisoning.