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Genome Sequences Provide Insights into the Reticulate Origin and Unique Traits of Woody Bamboos

Guo, Zhen-Hua, Ma, Peng-Fei, Yang, Guo-Qian, Hu, Jin-Yong, Liu, Yun-Long, Xia, En-Hua, Zhong, Mi-Cai, Zhao, Lei, Sun, Gui-Ling, Xu, Yu-Xing, Zhao, You-Jie, Zhang, Yi-Chi, Zhang, Yu-Xiao, Zhang, Xue-Mei, Zhou, Meng-Yuan, Guo, Ying, Guo, Cen, Liu, Jing-Xia, Ye, Xia-Ying, Chen, Yun-Mei, Yang, Yang, Han, Bin, Lin, Choun-Sea, Lu, Ying, Li, De-Zhu
Molecular plant 2019
Angiospermae, allopolyploidy, ancestry, bamboos, chromosome mapping, culms, data collection, diploidy, evolution, flowering, forests, genes, grasses, hexaploidy, models, nucleotide sequences, tetraploidy
Polyploidization is a major driver of speciation and its importance to plant evolution has been well recognized. Bamboos compriseĀ one diploid herbaceous and three polyploid woody lineages, and are members of the only major subfamily in grasses that diversified in forests, with the woody members having a tree-like lignified culm. In this study, we generated four draft genome assemblies of major bamboo lineages with three different ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid). We also constructed a high-density genetic linkage map for a hexaploid species of bamboo, and used a linkage-map-based strategy for genome assembly and identification of subgenomes in polyploids. Further phylogenomic analyses using a large dataset of syntenic genes with expected copies based on ploidy levels revealed that woody bamboos originated subsequent to the divergence of the herbaceous bamboo lineage, and experienced complex reticulate evolution through three independent allopolyploid events involving four extinct diploid ancestors. A shared but distinct subgenome was identified in all polyploid forms, and the progenitor of this subgenome could have been critical in ancient polyploidizations and the origin of woody bamboos. Important genetic clues to the unique flowering behavior and woody trait in bamboos were also found. Taken together, our study provides significant insights into ancient reticulate evolution at the subgenome level in the absence of extant donor species, and offers a potential model scenario for broad-scale study of angiosperm origination by allopolyploidization.