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A comparison of Taenia solium and Taenia hydatigena infection in pigs using serological diagnosis and post-mortem inspection methods in Benoué division, North Cameroon

Assana, Emmanuel, Awah-Ndukum, Julius, Djonmaïla, Justin D., Djiatche, Hidrice D., Awé, Charles, Manchang, T.K., Zoli, André P.
Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports 2019 v.17 pp. 100306
Bayesian theory, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, antibodies, blood serum, cysticerci, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, epilepsy, heart, muscles, necropsy, neurocysticercosis, parasites, serodiagnosis, swine, swine diseases, Cameroon
The metacestodes of Taenia solium and Taenia hydatigena are the cause of cysticercosis in pigs. T. solium is also responsible of the taeniosis/neurocysticercosis complex in humans, constituting a main cause of epilepsy cases across endemic countries. T. hydatigena is non-zoonotic, but its occurrence in pigs contributes significantly to false positive reactions should genus-species serological methods be used for diagnosis of T. solium porcine cysticercosis. T. hydatigena is often considered not common in pigs in Africa compared to T. solium. On the basis of the evidence that these two cestodes coexist in Cameroon, we examined the viscera of 305 pigs for the identification of the metacestodes of T. hydatigena in Bénoué division, North Region of Cameroon. Tongue, masticatory muscles and heart were sliced for the identification of T. solium cysticerci (TMH dissection test). Twenty seven (8.85%) and 16 (5.24%) pigs were found infected with the metacestodes of T. solium and T. hydatigena, respectively. The difference between the two rates of infection was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Serum samples were also collected for the evaluation of an inhibition ELISA (i-ELISA) specific to antibodies anti- T. solium or anti-T. hydatigena cysticerci. After incubation of these sera with cyst fluid of T. solium, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps multiceps, T. multiceps gaigeri and T. saginata to eliminate cross-reactions among cestodes parasites, the i-ELISA indicated that 26.56% and 28.52% slaughtered pigs had predominant specific antibodies to cyst fluid of T. solium and T. hydatigena, respectively. Combination of TMH dissection test, i-ELISA and a standard indirect ELISA in a Bayesian simulation approach revealed a true prevalence of 19.27% (0.7–49.27, CI 95%) and 24.85% (5.17–48.34, CI 95%) of porcine cysticercosis due to T. solium and T. hydatigena, respectively. These results indicated that T. hydatigena is as prevalent as T. solium in pigs in the North of Cameroon.