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A single daily dose of soybean phytosterols in ground beef decreases serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in young, mildly hypercholesterolemic men
- Matvienko, Oksana A., Lewis, Douglas S., Swanson, Mike, Arndt, Beth, Rainwater, David L., Stewart, Jeanne, Alekel, D. Lee
- American journal of clinical nutrition 2002 v.76 no.1 pp. 57-64
- beta-sitosterol, blood lipids, campesterol, college students, functional foods, ground beef, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, margarine, men, particle size, risk, soybeans, stigmasterol
- Background: Consumption of phytosterol-supplemented margarine lowers total plasma cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in older middle-aged hypercholesterolemic individuals. The effects of incorporating phytosterols into lower-fat foods on the plasma lipids of young men at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease have not been studied. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a single daily dose of soybean phytosterols added to ground beef will lower plasma TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic young men. Design: In a triple-blind, 4-wk study, 34 male college students with elevated plasma TC (5.85 ± 0.70 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (4.02 ± 0.60 mmol/L), and TC:HDL cholesterol (5.5 ± 1.2) were randomly assigned to the control (ground beef alone) or treatment (ground beef with 2.7 g of phytosterols) group. The phytosterol mixture was two-thirds esterified and one-third nonesterified and consisted of β-sitosterol (48%), campesterol (27%), and stigmasterol (21%). Results: Consumption of phytosterol-supplemented ground beef lowered plasma TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations and TC:HDL cholesterol from baseline by 9.3%, 14.6%, and 9.1%, respectively (P < 0.001). The LDL particle size did not change, suggesting that the decrease was primarily of particle number. The decreases were similar in subjects with (n = 8) and without (n = 9) a family history of premature cardiovascular disease. No significant changes were found in the control group. Conclusion: Phytosterol-supplemented ground beef effectively lowers plasma TC and LDL cholesterol and has the potential to become a functional food to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.