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Bone mineral density and dietary patterns in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study
- Tucker, Katherine L., Chen, Honglei, Hannan, Marian T., Cupples, L. Adrienne, Wilson, Peter W.F., Felson, David, Kiel, Douglas P.
- American journal of clinical nutrition 2002 v.76 no.1 pp. 245-252
- adults, alcohols, bone density, breads, candy, cluster analysis, eating habits, femur, food frequency questionnaires, heart, meat, men, nutrients, osteoporosis, vegetable consumption, vegetables, women
- Background: Several nutrients are known to affect bone mineral density (BMD). However, these nutrients occur together in foods and dietary patterns, and the overall effects of dietary choices are not well understood. Objective: We evaluated associations between dietary patterns and BMD in older adults. Design: Of the original Framingham Heart Study subjects, 907 aged 69-93 y completed food-frequency questionnaires as part of an osteoporosis study. We defined dietary patterns by cluster analysis. BMD was measured at the proximal right femur (femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's area) with a dual-photon absorptiometer and at the 33% radial shaft with a single-photon absorptiometer. We regressed BMD measures onto the cluster variable, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Six dietary patterns were identified, with relatively greater proportions of intake from meat, dairy, and bread; meat and sweet baked products; sweet baked products; alcohol; candy; and fruit, vegetables, and cereal. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, men in the last group had significantly (P = 0.05) greater BMD than did 2-4 other groups at the hip sites and the candy group at the radius. Men in the candy group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower BMD than did those in the fruit, vegetables, and cereal group for 3 of the 4 sites. Women in the candy group had significantly (P < 0.01) lower BMD than did all but one other group at the radius. Conclusions: Dietary pattern is associated with BMD. High fruit and vegetable intake appears to be protective in men. High candy consumption was associated with low BMD in both men and women.