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Effect of Exogenous Application of Methyl Jasmonate on the Lipid and Carbohydrate Content and Composition of Winter Triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) Grain and the Severity of Fungal Infections in Triticale Plants and Grain

Zalewski, Kazimierz, Lahuta, Lesław Bernard, Martysiak-Żurowska, Dorota, Okorski, Adam, Nitkiewicz, Bartosz, Zielonka, Łukasz
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.21 pp. 5932-5939
Triticosecale, autumn, carbohydrate content, carbohydrates, fertilizers, filling period, fungi, fungicides, germination, growing season, leaves, linoleic acid, methyl jasmonate, plant hormones, seedlings, seeds, statistical analysis, stem elongation, triticale, winter
Kernels of winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. cv. Dinaro) were analyzed. In the autumn of 2015, the effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on the germination of triticale kernels and the development of triticale seedlings was analyzed in a laboratory before kernels were sown in experimental plots. Kernels harvested from plots in August 2016 were analyzed to determine their lipid and carbohydrate content and composition and the severity of fungal infections. Triticale grain was harvested at full maturity. The plots were sprayed with MJ at concentrations of 10–⁶ to 10–³ M in the stem elongation stage (200 L/ha) and in the early milk stage (300 L/ha). Other preventive treatments, fungicides, pesticides, or foliar fertilizers were not applied. Lipids of triticale kernels contained 20 fatty acids (FAs) with the highest proportion of linoleic acid. Methyl jasmonate did not exert a significant effect on the FA composition of kernel lipids treated with the plant hormone during the growing season. Statistical analysis did not reveal significant (p < 0.05) differences in the total content of soluble carbohydrates in control kernels and in the kernels collected from triticale plants treated with MJ. Methyl jasmonate applied at a concentration of 10–³ M in BBCH stages 54 and 73 reduced the prevalence of stem base, leaf, and spike diseases. However, the severity of grain infections caused by mycotoxin-producing fungi increased in treatments where MJ was applied at a concentration of 10–⁵ M relative to the control treatment. The study describes the results noted in naturally infected plants and provides valuable inputs for agricultural practice, but further research is required to validate the presented findings.