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Spatiotemporal prediction of Escherichia coli and Enterococci for the Commonwealth Games triathlon event using Bayesian Networks

Bertone, E., Purandare, J., Durand, B.
Marine pollution bulletin 2019 v.146 pp. 11-21
Bayesian theory, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, algorithms, cost effectiveness, experts, models, monitoring, prediction, stakeholders, water pollution, water quality
A number of Bayesian Networks were developed in order to nowcast and forecast, up to 4 days ahead and in different locations, the likelihood of water quality within the 2018 Commonwealth Games Triathlon swim course exceeding the critical limits for Enterococci and Escherichia coli. The models are data-driven, but the identification of potential inputs and optimal model structure was performed through the parallel contribution of several stakeholders and experts, consulted through workshops. The models, whose main nodes were discretised with a customised discretisation algorithm, were validated over a test set of data and deployed in real-time during the Commonwealth Games in support to a traditional water quality monitoring program. The proposed modelling framework proved to be cost-effective and less time-consuming than process-based models while still achieving high accuracy; in addition, the added value of a continuous stakeholder engagement guarantees a shared understanding of the model outputs and its future deployment.