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Effects of Copper on Root Morphology, Cations Accumulation, and Oxidative Stress of Grapevine Seedlings

Juang, Kai-Wei, Lo, Yu-Ching, Chen, Tzu-Hsuan, Chen, Bo-Ching
Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 2019 v.102 no.6 pp. 873-879
Vitis, calcium, cations, copper, enzyme activity, exposure duration, hydrogen peroxide, hydroponics, leaves, magnesium, malondialdehyde, nitroblue tetrazolium, oxidative stress, potassium, root growth, roots, seedlings, staining, superoxide anion, superoxide dismutase
In the present study, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the oxidative stress and the copper (Cu) accumulation in grapevines exposed to three Cu levels (0, 5, and 15 µM) for 1, 2, and 3 days. The results showed that the root elongation was stunted at the highest-exposure concentration. The Cu accumulation in the grapevines increased with increasing Cu treatments, while the other nutrient elements (Ca, Mg and K) absorbed by the grapevines decreased. Most of the Cu taken up by the grapevines was accumulated in the roots. Compared to the data for 1 day after treatment, the Cu-addition significantly decreased the Mg and K concentration in the roots and leaves, yet increased the superoxide dismutase activity in the leaves after 3 days of treatment. For the reactive oxygen species, the malondialdehyde increased with increasing Cu levels in the roots and leaves; however, both the Cu-addition and exposure duration reduced the H₂O₂ level in the root. Additionally, the Cu-induced accumulation of ·O₂⁻ and H₂O₂ in the grapevine leaves can be observed by the histochemical staining of nitroblue tetrazolium and diaminobenzidine, respectively. In conclusion, the present results indicate that excess Cu results in a change of the root morphology and leads to oxidative stress for the grapevine leaves and roots.