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Toxicity and effects of essential oils and their components on Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae)

Lee, Seung Ju, Kim, Hyun Kyung, Kim, Gil-Hah
Experimental & applied acarology 2019 v.78 no.1 pp. 65-78
Dermanyssus gallinae, acaricidal properties, acarology, acetates, adults, bark, bioassays, cinnamon, cloves, essential oils, eugenol, females, fumigants, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, lethal dose 50, mites, oils, olfactometers, vapors
The acaricidal activity of 30 essential oils against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, female adults and behavioral responses of the mites to these essential oils were investigated. Cinnamon bark oil and clove bud oil showed 100% acaricidal activity after 24 h in the 1.3 μg/m² treatment. In addition, four components in cinnamon bark oil and three components in clove bud oil were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cinnamon bark oil showed the highest LD₅₀ value among all of the components, and eugenol showed 0.97-fold higher relative toxicity (RT) than the other components of clove bud oil. The fumigant effects of both essential oils and their seven components were observed using a vapor phase toxicity bioassay. All the substances showed repellent activity except for cinnamyl acetate, which did not show any repellent response even in the > 10 μg treatment. In the experiment using the T-tube olfactometer with the 10 μg treatment of each substance, D. gallinae female adults responded to all the substances except cinnamyl acetate. However, eugenol and eugenol acetate showed an attractant effect after 240 and 120 min of treatment, respectively. These results suggest that the two studied essential oils and their components may be used as control agents against D. gallinae.