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Antioxidant Properties and Antibacterial Effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Biofilm Formation, Motility, Hemolysin Production, and Cell Membrane of the Foodborne Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes
- Nwabor, Ozioma Forstinus, Vongkamjan, Kitiya, Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan
- Foodborne pathogens & disease 2019 v.16 no.8 pp. 581-589
- 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Listeria monocytogenes, antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, bacteria, biofilm, cell membranes, consumer attitudes, food pathogens, free radical scavengers, garlic, hemolysins, inhibitory concentration 50, leaf extracts, minimum inhibitory concentration, preservatives, quercetin
- Consumer concerns toward chemical preservatives have resulted in increased search for healthy green alternative. In this study, the antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis ethanolic leaf extract against Listeria monocytogenes, a serious foodborne pathogen, was evaluated. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were 11.10 mg garlic acid equivalent/mg extract and 15.05 mg quercetin equivalent/mg extract, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of the extract was 64–128 μg/mL and 256–512 μg/mL, respectively. Time-kill assay revealed growth inhibitory effects after 4-h treatment of the bacteria with the extract. A reduction of ≈2–3 log colony-forming units per milliliter was observed against the tested food and environmental isolates after challenging the pathogens with the extract at MIC for 6 h. Sub-MICs of the extract significantly inhibited motility and listeriolysin O production up to 80%, with 60% inhibition of biofilm formation (p < 0.05). Antioxidant assay revealed free radical scavenging activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 57.07 μg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 29.01 μg/mL for ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] assay. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay further showed a total antioxidant power equivalent to 92.93 μM ascorbic acid equivalent/mg extract. As the extract exhibited profound antilisterial activity and good radical scavenging ability, it might serve as a potential alternative source of biopreservative agent against L. monocytogenes.