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In vitro digestion of bread: How is it influenced by the bolus characteristics?

Gao, Jing, Lin, Suyun, Jin, Xiaoxuan, Wang, Yong, Ying, Jian, Dong, Zhizhong, Zhou, Weibiao
Journal of texture studies 2019 v.50 no.3 pp. 257-268
cutting, dialysis, grinding, hydrolysis, in vitro digestion, in vitro studies, intestines, mastication, mixing, particle size, prediction, reducing sugars, saliva, staple foods, starch, texture, water content, white bread
This study aimed to understand the impact of in vitro oral processing methods on bolus formation and the kinetics of starch hydrolysis of refined white bread during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Four in vitro oral processing methods (i.e., cut, cut‐and‐pestle, blend, and grind) were performed at two levels of disintegration (less and more intensive) and compared with human mastication. Boluses prepared using the in vitro methods had a larger particle size (20–69 mm² vs. 14 mm²), a higher moisture content (64–68% vs. 47%), a softer texture (1.3–2.3 N vs. 6.3 N) and a less adhesive surface (0.3–1.0 vs. 1.6 N•s) as compared to the in vivo masticated ones. Moreover, in vitro prepared blouses were digested more rapidly than in vivo masticated ones during the stimulated intestinal digestion from 150 min onward, with a higher hydrolysis rate (0.011–0.012 mg/mL • min vs. 0.010 mg/mL • min) and a higher equilibrium concentration of reducing sugar (5.5–6.3 mg/mL vs. 4.9 mg/mL). Among all the in vitro methods, the blending and grinding methods produced boluses that most closely resemble the in vivo masticated ones in terms of their physical characteristics. The blending method also produced boluses having the highest amount of reducing sugar released (6.32 mg/mL). The amount of reducing sugar present in the PBS buffer outside the dialysis tube might be controlled by the diffusion efficiency at the beginning of the digestion (≤120 min) and then be largely influenced by the particle size of the bolus in the latter stage of the digestion. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Studying the in vitro starch amyloysis is valuable for predicting the postprandial glycemic potential of starchy food. This work provides novel insights on the role of in vitro oral processing in the prediction of the glycemic potential of carbohydrate‐rich staple food. Blending method is recommended because of its ability to produce boluses with similar physical characteristics as the in vivo masticated boluses. But the excessive structural breakdown occurred during blending also resulted in a higher enzymatic accessibility and a higher rate of starch digestion. Further study is needed to propose a new in vitro method that stimulates multiple actions occurred during mastication (cutting, grinding, and shearing), in order to match both physical properties and digestion profiles. Moreover, the amount of artificial saliva added should be adjusted according to the specific type of food.