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Criteria Air Pollutant and Greenhouse Gases Emissions from U.S. Refineries Allocated to Refinery Products

Sun, Pingping, Young, Ben, Elgowainy, Amgad, Lu, Zifeng, Wang, Michael, Morelli, Ben, Hawkins, Troy
Environmental science & technology 2019 v.53 no.11 pp. 6556-6569
air pollutants, air pollution, alkenes, bitumen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, catalysts, combustion, emissions factor, energy, gasoline, greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gases, inventories, life cycle inventory, lubricants, methane, models, nitrous oxide, oil and gas industry, particulates, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, United States
Using Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program data (GHGRP) and National Emissions Inventory data from 2014, we investigate U.S. refinery greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO₂, CH₄, and N₂O) and criteria air pollutant (CAP) emissions (VOC, CO, NOₓ, SO₂, PM₁₀, and PM₂.₅). The study derives (1) combustion emission factors (EFs) of refinery fuels (e.g., refinery catalyst coke and refinery combined gas), (2) U.S. refinery GHG emissions and CAP emissions per crude throughput at the national and regional levels, and (3) GHG and CAP emissions attributable to U.S. refinery products. The latter two emissions were further itemized by source: combustion emission, process emission, and facility-wide emission. We estimated U.S. refinery product GHG and CAP emissions via energy allocation at the refinery process unit level. The unit energy demand and unit flow information were adopted from the Petroleum Refinery Life Cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM version 1.1) by fitting individual U.S. refineries. This study fills an important information gap because it (1) evaluates refinery CAP emissions along with GHG emissions and (2) provides CAP and GHG emissions not only for refinery main products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.) but also for refinery secondary products (asphalt, lubricant, wax, light olefins, etc.).