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Amelioration of fenitrothion induced oxidative DNA damage and inactivation of caspase-3 in the brain and spleen tissues of male rats by N-acetylcysteine
- Alam, Rasha T., Imam, Tamer S., Abo-Elmaaty, Azza M.A., Arisha, Ahmed Hamed
- Life sciences 2019 v.231 pp. 116534
- DNA damage, acetylcysteine, antioxidants, apoptosis, blood serum, caspase-3, cerebrum, dopamine, erythrocyte count, fenitrothion, free radicals, gamma-aminobutyric acid, gene expression, genes, glutathione, immune response, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, immunotoxicity, interleukin-2, males, mechanism of action, messenger RNA, neurotoxicity, oral exposure, oxidative stress, rats, serotonin, spleen, superoxide dismutase, tissues, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
- N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has largely been used as an effective chemo- protective agent owing to their beneficial effect in restoring several physiological parameters and relieving oxidative stress. Interestingly, it has been suggested that NAC mechanisms of action extend beyond being a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione and that they may involve several neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Exposure to fenitrothion, an organophosphorus insecticide, promotes oxidative stress and induces several deleterious changes in the immune response and various tissues including cerebrum and spleen. The main objective of our study was to investigate ameliorative efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for immunological and neurological alterations and oxidative DNA damage induced by fenitrothion toxicity in cerebrum and spleen tissues of male rats. Our results revealed that oral exposure to fenitrothion for 30 days caused a reduction in the erythrocyte count in addition to leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, and neutrophilia. Also, this route of administration increased the serum levels of LDH, TNF-α, and IL-2 with reduction in serum immunoglobulins (IgG & IgM) concentrations. Furthermore, a significant downregulation in the antioxidant markers (GSH & SOD) with an elevation of free radical (MDA) levels were noticed. Regarding the brain, fenitrothion administration inhibited AchE activity and increased brain GABA, serotonin and dopamine levels. Moreover, it induced an elevation in oxidative DNA damage indicated by 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8OH2dG) and mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic genes, including Bax, and p53, but Bcl-2 expression was reduced. N-acetylcysteine co-treatment restored the normal physiological tone in most of these parameters. Immunostaining for GFAP and Caspase-3 markers in the brain and spleen tissues were increased respectively. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine supplementation has an ameliorative effect against immunotoxic, neurotoxic and oxidative DNA damage induced by fenitrothion exposure.