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Dietary CCPS from bitter gourd attenuates sodium arsenite induced female reproductive ailments cum infertility in wistar rats: anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic role

Perveen, Hasina, Dey, Arindam, Nilavar, Namrata M., Chandra, Goutam Kumar, Islam, Syed Sirajul, Chattopadhyay, Sandip
Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.131 pp. 110545
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Momordica charantia, NAD ADP-ribosyltransferase, animal ovaries, anti-inflammatory activity, apoptosis, arsenic, binding sites, caspase-3, catalase, cations, chelation, diet therapy, estrogen receptors, females, folic acid, galactose, gene expression regulation, glutathione peroxidase, homocysteine, interleukin-6, laboratory animals, lipid peroxidation, methionine, neoplasms, non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase, pectins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, pups, rats, reactive oxygen species, signal transduction, sodium arsenite, spectral analysis, steroidogenesis, superoxide dismutase, tissue repair, toxicity, toxicology, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, uterine tissue
This investigation explored a dietary therapy of pectic polysaccharide (CCPS) (2 mg/ Kg BW) against female repro-toxicity and infertility triggered by sodium arsenite (As3+) (10 mg/ Kg BW) in Wistar rats. The isolated CCPS consists of D-galactose and D-methyl galacturonate with a molar ratio of 1: 4. FTIR spectral analysis of CCPS and CCPS- sodium arsenite (As3+) complex indicated a possible chelating property of CCPS in presence of binding sites (OH−/COOH) for As3+. Series of negatively charged galacturonate residues in CCPS provide better potential for cation chelation. CCPS significantly mitigated As3+ induced ovarian, uterine lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by the restoration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. CCPS post-treatment enhanced ovarian steroidogenesis along with a restoration of normal tissue histoarchitecture in As3+ fed rats by regulating the estradiol receptor alpha (ER-α). CCPS suppressed anti-inflammatory properties effectively found since a down-regulation of NF-kappa B (NF-қB), pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed in arsenicated rats with CCPS. This study confirmed the up-regulation of uterine pro-apoptotic/ apoptotic proteins caspase-3, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), phospho p53 and Bax, followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and protein Kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway along with uterine tissue regeneration in As3+ exposed rats. Oral CCPS attenuated the above apoptotic expressional changes significantly and dietary CCPS ensured successful fertility with the birth of healthy pups in lieu of infertile condition in As3+ fed rats. Moreover, this study also supports that CCPS treatment attenuated the As3+ toxicity by modulating the S-adenosine methionine (SAM) pool components, B12, folate and homocysteine.